14 December 2011

Siege of Makapan Cave

At Moorddrift, some 13 kms south of the central Limpopo town of Mokopane, the Nyl River is wide and shallow, with low sandy banks, an ideal crossing point for the migrating herds of animals of the past, or for long lines of barefooted African traders bearing heavy loads on their heads, or for the oxwagons of the Trekkers moving north in their quest to find a homeland somewhere in the African hinterland where they could live an independent existence, far from British Rule.

It was the “Jerusalemgangers” – a Trekker religious sect intent on reaching the Holy Land – that named the river thus, for it was the first river they had encountered that followed a northwards course. They thought, optimistically, that they had at last encountered the headwaters of the Nile in their trek northwards. The Tswana had another more appropriate name for it: they called it the Mogalakwena – “Mother of Crocodiles”, and the river crossing was known as Esikweni Sengwenyama, the “forest of the Lions”.

The story of the murders at Moorddrift and the subsequent siege at the cave of Gwaša belongs to a longer story of unrest in the northern parts of Limpopo as a growing Boer presence impacted on local groups of Sotho and Ndebele living there. The first white person to penetrate this far north was the notorious frontiersman Coenraad de Buys (originally spelt de Bus), with his fabled harem. One of his several indigenous wives was the sister of Mzilikazi. The founding father of “the Buys People”, his numerous family members eventually settled on the southern flank of the western end of the Zoutpansberg, the settlement coming to be known as Buysdorp.

Then came the Trekkers:  Johannes Janse van Rensburg – “Lang Hans” – and Louis Trichardt in 1836, with Commandant Andries Hendrik Potgieter hard on their heels. The Trichardt party quarreled with the van Rensburg party over essential supplies such as ammunition and lead which the latter kept borrowing without returning.  The short supply of ammunition was soon to prove fatal to the van Rensburg party who decided to push on independently of the Trichardts in an attempt to reach the east coast where they had the possibility of resupply. However, shortly afterwards, in June 1836, the van Rensburg trek was murdered by a raiding party under the Zulu leader, Sakana or Manukosi. The only survivors of the disaster were the children of Frederik van Wyk (the son-in-law of Lang Hans), a six-year-old boy and a three-year old girl, who were taken to live at Sakana’s kraal. It is probable that they died there of malaria.

The Trichardt party, after suffering a terrible journey, reached Lourenço Marques (Maputo) on 13 April 1838, only to be decimated by malaria.

Commandant Andries Hendrik Potgieter (also known as Hendrik Potgieter) ,however, settled on the south side of the Zoutpansberg, naming the town he founded in this pleasantly wooded area Zoutpansbergdorp – which was later renamed Schoemansdal. The road to his supply line in the south lay through the Makapanspoort, the latter so named because Chief Mokopane’s headquarters, Chidi, was nearby. The trekker highway therefore passed through the territory of Chief Mokopane of the Kekana Ndebele, and crossed the river at Esikwini Sengwenyama. This did not please Mokopane, who was even more perturbed when in 1850, permanent settlement in the Makapanspoort, on the site of the future Potgietersrus, began.

Commandant Potgieter had plans to formalize the Makapanspoort settlement by proclaiming a town, and chose the name Vredenburg for it to celebrate his recent reconciliation with his arch-rival Marthinus Wessel Pretorius. However, in December 1852, before he could carry out his intention, he died in Zoutpansbergdorp. His 30-year-old son, Pieter Johannes, took over the reins of leadership and later carried out his father’s wish with regard to proclaiming the town.

But trouble was brewing. Hermanus Potgieter, a younger brother of the old Commandant, had an unappeasable predilection for the livestock, land and labour of the local people. Even amongst his countrymen he had a reputation for rough behaviour and for being a troublemaker. In this very remote frontier region there was little to curb excesses of behaviour and Hermanus Potgieter’s methods to secure what he wanted were chillingly ruthless. He was notorious for demanding tributes of cattle, and more importantly, of children, who were forced into indentured labour under the ingeboekt system, in effect a form of slavery. In 1853, the famous trader João Albisini who ran the safari trade from the Zoutpansberg to the Portuguese port at Delagoa Bay, warned the Boers of incipient hostilities. Messages of mutilation on Boer subjects and livestock were being sent out by the Ndebele rulers.

The last straw came in August 1854 when Hermanus Potgieter shot and killed the brother of Mokopane over a dispute concerning a buffalo that had been shot. The two Ndebele allies decided that enough was enough. A month later, in September, twenty-eight Boers were killed in three separate incidents by the two chiefs. There are multiple versions of these stories, both in the form of varied oral traditions of the Kekana people, and in the recorded and often conflicting testimonies of Trekker history. Mankopane avenged the death of Mokopane’s brother by luring Hermanus Potgieter into his kraal at Fothane with tales of ivory. Once there, he and his support party were tempted away from the wagons by bearers carrying great tusks of ivory. They were caught unaware and killed. Potgieter was flayed alive. Eight persons were also murdered at Fothane – “moordkoppie”.

The other two murders were carried out near Mokopane’s capital in the Makapanspoort. The first was at the river crossing at Esikgweni Sengwenyama. Here, a Boer party camped under the camelthorn trees next to the drift were set upon and murdered, the heads of six children being dashed to pieces against the boles of the trees. Twelve persons were murdered here by Mokopane, and their corpses mutilated in different ways. In subsequent years it was to acquire the name Moorddrift. The third incident involved a smaller party that had gone to trade at the chief’s village at Chidi, on the present-day farms of Pruizen and Twenty Four Rivers just south-east of the newly proclaimed trekker town of Vredenburg. They too were murdered. All the murders were characterized by gory mutilation and brutality, the Ndebele hoping in this way to scare the Boers from territory they deemed to be their own.

Such acts did not go unnoticed, and a commando led by Piet Potgieter, nephew of Hermanus, and M W Pretorius was mounted against Mokopane, even though it had been Mankopane (Mapela) who had killed Hermanus Potgieter. Mokopane and his people had retired to a massive cave in the mountains, some 23 km north-east of Vredenburg. This cave has the local name of Gwaša, which refers to whisperings, breaths or sighs – the “breath” of the cave is said to be foetid with disease. The Boer name for the cave was, of course, Makapansgat, from which the farm on which the historic cave is situated takes its name.

Swiss photographer H R Gros’ 1883 photo of the northern entrance to Makapan’s Cave showing interior fortifications and stone walling
Makapansgat was declared a World Heritage Site in 2005 on account of its rich and multi-layered heritage extending in an almost unbroken record from Ape-man times about three million years ago to the present. The cave of Gwaša, also known as Makapan’s Cave or Makapansgat, is situated on the side of a hill in a narrow valley, in which there occur a number of caves.

Gwaša has two entrances, and the Kekana Ndebele tried to fortify them by partially walling them off with stone and by creating breastworks inside the cave. Sadly, being perched high above the valley bottom, the caves have little or no water, which made the choice of the retreat a disaster. The commando of M W Pretorius and Piet Potgieter caught up with the fugitives on 25 October 1854 and laid siege to the cave. It was blockaded and two small field cannon were dragged up the opposite flank of the valley and attempts were made to fire into the wide mouth of the refuge. Kekana, firing from behind the redoubts they had constructed inside the cave, made it too hazardous to storm. Other tactics were tried. A plan to collapse the roof of the cave by setting off explosive charges was adopted. However, the first experiment failed and gunpowder was too expensive and scarce to allow a repeat attempt. Huge piles of firewood were thrown off the cliffs above the cave and set alight in the hopes that billows of smoke would be drawn into the cave and so smoke the fugitives out.

Attempts to escape under cover of darkness were discouraged by the deadly accuracy of fire of the night patrol – which claimed the lives of more than 700 victims. After this more and more women and children gave themselves up. On 6 November, Piet Potgieter was standing at the edge of the cliff and peering over to see what was going on below, his body probably clearly silhouetted against the sky. From the darkness within, a Ndebele sniper took aim and his bullet found its mark. Piet Potgieter died where he fell, at the mouth of the cave. His body was retrieved by a young Field-cornet Paul Kruger, with the help of João Albisini’s headman, Manungu.

By the time 17 November 1854 came, resistance had collapsed and parties of Boers began entering the cave and on the 21st the siege was called off. A strong consideration in calling it off was the threat of horse sickness which comes on with the onset of the summer rains, and the Boers would have been left vulnerable without their horses.

It will never be known how many Kekana died in the siege. Military reports state figures in excess of 2 000. However, the adage that the first casualty of war is the truth is particularly true of casualty figures. The figure of 2 000 would have left a large number of corpses inside the cave. In fact, further exploration of the cave immediately after the siege was discouraged by the almost unbearable stench of decomposing bodies. The site should be seen as a mass grave. But what happened to all the bones is still a mystery. Photographs taken by itinerant Swiss photographer H R Gros in 1883, almost 30 years later show numbers of skulls which he used as photographic props.

One consequence of the siege was the commemorative re-naming of the rather inappropriately-named town of Vredenburg (town of peace) to Piet Potgietersrust, later shortened to Potgietersrus. Still more recently, it was renamed Mokopane in commemoration of the chief whose tribe was almost destroyed in the cave.

Source: Village Life (June/July 2007) - Dr Judy Maguire

16 November 2011

The Hangklip maroons (1724 - 1737)

The summer of 1736 had not been a particularly dry one, by the Standards of Cape Town, and on three days in February there had been some light rain. Nevertheless, early in the morning of the 12 March 1736, the thatched roofs of the town must have been very dry, and moreover a south-east wind had sprung up in the night, blowing round the Devil's Peak and down the slopes of Table Mountain with a force that made it difficult to walk.

Therefore when, in course of the night, a fire began in the tannery belonging to Jan Nicholaas Beugel, which lay just across from the vegetable garden of the VOC, on the southern edge of the town, it could easily have spread and burnt down the whole of Cape Town. As it was, it destroyed only five houses. The town was saved, the official diarist teils us, 'by the Grace of God and swiftly taken action', a combination of which Oliver Cromwell would surely have approved.

The expedients included spreading an old sail over the thatched roof of the most vulnerable house to ward off the sparks, which it was able to do because the slaves kept it sodden. All the same, the owners of the five houses lost all their possessions, even down to the chickens in Rudolf Allemann's run, which were unable to escape and so were roasted alive, and eaten next morning by his slaves.

The Cape authorities were not certain whether the fire was accidental, for the houses had been destroyed so completely that no clues were left, 110 half-burnt brands as had been found after a similar arson attempt three months previously. They must have had their suspicions, all the same, because at the same meeting of the council they ordered a commando to go out and round up the runaways, both slave and European, hiding in the mountains round the Cape. Later they discovered that it had indeed been a case of deliberate arson, one committed moreover by members of the most notorious band of runaway slaves in the history of the Cape colony, led by Leander Bugis and living on the coast near Hangklip, or Cape False.

Because it was the longest surviving and largest of such groups at the Cape, the Hangklip maroon Community represents the limit of what runaway slaves in South Africa were able to achieve.

The band had first come to the notice of the authorities some eleven years before the fire. The landrost of Stellenbosch had written to the governor informing him that a large number of slaves were hiding in the mountains around Cape Agulhas and asking that the reward for capturing them be increased to ten Rijksdaalders per head.

Around 1725 the group was joined by Lena van de Caab, a slave of the Company. Two years earlier she had run away from Cape Town with Jochem, her husband, and had gone to live in the mountains of the Cape peninsula, about Hout Bay. They survived largely by stealing sheep from the kraal of Jochem's former master, Gerrit Victor. After two years of this precarious existence, they decided that they needed to find a safer spot and moved from the mountains of the Cape peninsula across the Cape flats - presumably along the coast of Falsc Bay - to Hangklip, where they found four men living, Leander Bugis, Arend, Joumath and Andries.

Probably it was not chance that they went there. Communications between Hangklip and Table Mountain were frequent, at least in later years, so it is likely that Lena and Jochem knew of the existence of the Hangklip group and went with the definite intention of joining it.

Hangklip was a very suitable location for a maroon Community because it combined the safety provided by the mountains with the plentiful food supplies of the coast.

The basic biographical data that is available on the fifty known Hangklip runaways (of the period 1724-1737) is listed below. In general it is very deficient, and on occasion, especially as regards the date of birth, rather approximate.

1 Adam, m., slave of Mattheus de Wolff, present in early 1730s.
2 Alexander, m., 1703 born Bengal, slave of Hendrick Thomas, with runaways 1733-5, then captured in Cape Town and sentenced to be flogged, branded, be pilloried under the gallows and to 25 years' hard labour in chains. (It was not known he had been in Hanglip.) Escaped September 1736, went to Hanglip. Was captured 1737. Sentenced to be broken without the coup de grace, after first having eight pieces of flesh pulled out with red-hot tongs.
3 Alexander, m., born 1705, Malabar, slave of Jochem Stolz. In Lena's group, 1730, captured, flogged and sent home.
4 Amil, m., born 1700, Madagascar slave of Jochem Stoltz, Tijgerberg. Went to Hanglip 1726, captured 1730, hung.
5 Andries, m., slave of Jan Zacharias Beck. In Hanglip before 1724.
6 Anthony, m., slave of Pieter Jürgen van der Heijde. In Hanglip 1728, stayed one month and then returned to his master.
7 Anna, f., born 1697, Madagascar, slave of Gysbert Verwey, Tijgerberg. In Hanglip from 1726, captured 1737, strangled.
8 Arend, m., slave of Cornelia Eenmaal, widow Smuts (?, there is no such person on the 'Geslagsregister van Ou Kaapse Families'). In Hanglip before 1725.
9 Aron, m., born 1707 Madagascar, slave of Paul Jordaan, Cape Town. Went to Hanglip 1736, captured 1737, flogged, branded, ten years' hard labour in chains.
10 Barkat, m., slave of Robert Schot, free black, in the Cape flats, went to Hanglip 1736.
11 Batjoe, m., slave of Nicholaas Brommert, In Hanglip, 1735-6.
12 Caesar, m. born 1700, Madagascar, slave of Jan Olivier. In Lena's group, 1730, flogged, branded, 10 years' hard labour in chains.
13 Christina, f., born 1705, Madagascar, slave of Jochem Stoltz. In Lena's group 1730, flogged, branded and sent home.
14 Colon, m.,'born 1697, Ceribon, (Java) slave of Abraham de Hann. Captured 1730, broken with coup de grace, as he had killed his fellow slave Joumath in escaping.
15 Cupido, m., slave of Ernst Heeger. In Hanglip c. 1730, went back to his master after six months.
16 Cupido, m., slave of schipper Jan de Heere. Went to Hanglip 1726-7, present 1736.
17 December, m., born Bali, slave of Hendrick Thomas. In Hanglip c. 1732, killed by Leander.
18 December, m., born 1700, Bali, slave of Jan de Waal, Cape Town. In Hanglip 1726-7, capturad with Lena 1730, broken with coup de grace.
19 Diana, f., born 1711, Rio de la Goa, slave of Jacobus Marshun, Cape Town. Went to Hanglip 1736 - having spent some time in an exclusively 'Delagoan' group in the neighbourhood - captured 1737, when she was pregnant, strangled two months after the trial, after giving birth, only spoke the 'Rio de la Goa' language.
20 Dina, f., born 1712, Rio de la Goa, slave of widow Smiesing. In Hanglip from 1736, captured 1737, strangled.
21 Fortuyn, m., present 1736.
22 Eloris, m., present 1736.
23 January, m., slave of H. Mark, born 1717. In Hanglip from 1734, captured 1734, questioned and released, returned to Hanglip, captured 1737, hung.
24 January, alias Jamboe, m., born 1690, Bugis, slave of widow Nicholas Mulder, Cape Town. In Hanglip 1726-7, captured 1730, flogged, branded, hard labour in chains for life.
25 January, m., slave of Noach Backer, Cape Town. In Hanglip 1726-7.
26 Jochem, m., born at the Cape, slave of Gerrit Victor. In Hanglip from 1725, died c. 1729, killed by order of Leander.
27 Joseph, m., born 1697, Malabar, slave of Coenraad Gross. In Hanglip 1734, captured 1737, hung.
28 Joumath, m. slave of Johannes Cruywagen. In Hanglip before 1725, had brother in Cape Town, leader of splinter group, never captured.
29 Leander, m., born Bugis, slave of Dirk Brand. In Hanglip before 1725, leader of group, last seen running away from the commando, 1737.
30 Lena, f., born 1700, Cape Town, slave of VOC. In Hanglip 1725, captured 1730, flogged, branded, to work in heavy chains for life, in the Company's slave lodge, stole linen again in 1737.
31 Lijs, f., present 1736.
32 May, m., slave of schipper, Jan de Heere, Cape Town. In Hanglip 1726-7, killed by Joumath, after the split.
33 Meij, m., born 1698, Cochin, slave of Willem Das. In Hanglip from 1731, captured 1733, sentenced to work in chains until others caught, presumably dead by 1737.
34 Mars, m., slave of Jan de Heere. In Hanglip 1726-7, in Joumath's group, 1736.
35 Marthinus, m., born Cape, slave of Gideon Joubert. Went to Hanglip November 1736, with brother Pieter.
36 November, m., born 1699, Sumbawa, slave of Cornelis Heufke. Captured 1730, hung.
37 Perra, m., born 1702, Malabar, slave of Jacob de Vries, Cape Town. Went to Hanglip July 1736, gave himself up 1737 after group had broken up, hung.
38 Philander, m., born 1705, Ceylon, slave of Anthony Wagenaar. Went to Hanglip 1726, captured 1730, broken with coup de grace.
39 Pieter, m., born 1702, Malabar, slave of Johannes Swellengrebel. Captured 1730, hung.
40 Pieter, m., born 1721, Cape Town, slave of Andries Grove, Rondebosch. Went to Hanglip, with his brother, November 1736, captured December 1736, flogged, three years in chains, serving his master.
41 Rosetta, f., born Rio de la Goa, slave of Jaconus Marshon. In Hanglip 1736.
42 Salomon, m., slave of repatriated burger Rogiers. In Hanglip from 1725.
43 Sambow, m., born 1707, Madagascar, slave of Ernest Heeger. Went to Hanglip 1730, captured 1737, broken without coup de grace.
44 Sara, f., slave of Gysbert Verwey. In Hanglip from 1725.
45 Scipio, m., slave of Gysbert Verwey, Tijgerberg. In Hanglip from 1725, killed by Leander, 1726.
46 September, m., born 1702, Bugis, slave of Jochem Stoltz. Captured 1730, flogged branded, sent home.
47 Simon, m., slave of schipper Jan de Heere, Cape Town. In Hanglip 1726-7.
48 Titus, m., slave of schipper Jan de Heere, Cape Town. In Hanglip 1726-7.
49 Toesina, m., slave of Johannes Cruywagen. In Hanglip from ? 1728, killed ? 1736, after firing on commando.
50 Venus, m., slave of Steven Niel. In Hanglip from ? 1728.

Cape of torments Slavery and resistance in South Africa
Robert ROSS

17 October 2011

The Dodgsons of Yorkshire

My Dodgson family tree has been traced back to Benjamin Dodgson who was born in Yorkshire, England in 1796. The 1841 census shows Benjamin as living in Tadcaster, Aberford.

Benjamin married Elizabeth Arnold who was born in 1795. The 1851 census of Yorkshire shows Elizabeth living with her children, mother and niece Eliza Arnold who was 12 and was born in Womersley. Elizabeth is listed as a widow, meaning that Benjamin died before the 1851 census was taken. Her occupation was listed as a labourers wife.

Benjamin and Elizabeth had 7 children, Teresa (born 1835), John (born 1837), Frank (born 1837), Benjamin (born 1841), Amey (born 1843), Arnold (born 1840) and George (born 1850).

My Dodgson family are ancestors are the offspring of George Dodgson and his wife Jane Hall (born 12 August 1854, died 29 February 1908).  George and Jane married in Pontefract on the 14th of June 1873.

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (born 27 January 1832, died 14 January 1898), is better known by the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer.  His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, as well as the poems "The Hunting of the Snark" and "Jabberwocky", all examples of the genre of literary nonsense.

When Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire, and the whole family moved to the spacious Rectory. This remained their home for the next twenty-five years.

Given the fact that the families lived in Yorkshire at the same time and that Benjamin's family was so big and Charles also came from a large family there could be a link between the two family trees. 

Any information on the subject would be greatly appreciated.

Wikipedia: Lewis Carroll

12 September 2011

French Refugees who came to the Cape

List of French Refugees who came to the Cape between 1688 and 1700

(Those marked with an asterisk received pecuniary assistance from the Batavian Fund in 1690. The list of recipients is printed in Theal's "History of South Africa before 1795" vol. 2, pp. 342-343.]

Note.—Names commencing with des, du, la, le, arranged under these prefixes.

Anthonarde, Marie, mother-in-law of Louise Corbonne or her husband Jean Mesnard, q.v., sailed in the Berg China in 1688, then aged 64; probably died on the voyage.

*Arniel, Matthieu, received assistance for himself, wife and two children. An agriculturist at French Hoek, he was married to Jeanne Mille, born in Provence in 1633 (died 17th March, 1731). He died in November, 1719, and, by the joint will in 1718 of himself and wife, left legacies to (i) the Poor Fund of Drakenstein, (2) Susanna Fracasse, daughter of Matthieu Fracasse, q.v. living with her cousin Francois Ree in Amsterdam, (3) Jan Roy (Roi ?), son of the agriculturist in French Hoek, Jan Roy, q.v. After the death of the survivor they appoint Jan Roy, Jr., heir after his father's death.

Avicé or Avis, Sara of d'Chateau d'un, a spinster, sailed in 1688 in the Oosterlandt; probably did not reach Cape.

Avicé or Avis, Marie, living at Drakenstein in 1692; was then the wife of Claude Marais of Plessis, q.v. She died before 172 1, and does not appear to have left issue.

Bache, or Basche, Marguerite, a spinster, sailed in the Voorschooten in 1688, then aged 23. In the Stellenbosch Church books is the entry of baptism of Lysbeth daughter of Hans Pieter van Malcheer and Margarita Basse on 3rd August, 1692.

Barillé, Pierre, with his wife, Dina van Soetermeer, did not require assistance from the 1690 Fund. In 1692 they were hving in the Cape district, and eight years after she is described as a widow.

*Barré, Louis, on 26th February, 1700, Revd. Pierre Simond, q.v., granted a power of attorney in Barre's favour to recover certain money. He returned to Europe in 1705.

*Batté, Pierre, returned to Europe in 1696.

La Bat See Labat.

Belusé, Bleuset or Bluse, Abraham of Calais, born 1665; came in the Schelde in 1688, in 1692 was Hving in the Cape district unmarried, and in 1700 in Stellenbosch. An agriculturist, he married Elizabeth Posseaux of Paris, q.v., widow of Jacob Bisseux, q.v. He died on 25th July, 1735, and was buried near his wife. In his will, filed in 1735, he signs himself Bleuset, and is described as "compagnon" in farming with Jean Manier, q.v. His wife died in September, 1726, and was buried in the churchyard at Cape Town. She appears to have had children by her first husband only.

*Beneset, or Benezet, Pierre, one of the first deacons of the French congregation at Drakenstein in 1691, unmarried. Returned to Europe in 1700.

de Berault or de Beureau, Anne, wife of Revd. Pierre Simond, q.v.

de Berault or de Beureau, Louis, brother of above, arrived in the Zuid Beveland in 1688 with Rev. Simond and party, although he was at the time a sergeant in the service of the Dutch East India Company. He accompanied the first expedition of the Noord in October, 1688, to Rio de la Goa in search of the wrecked men of the Stavenisse. He subsequently left the service and became a "freeman" or free burgher at the Cape, and in 1690 was deacon of the Cape Town Church; the following year he was one of the first elders of the newlyformed French congregation at Drakenstein. Although described in 1690 as married with three children,' his wife and children must have died, for in his will, drawn up at Stellenbosch in 1698, he makes his sister Anne his heiress, and states that for eight or ten years he had not heard from his friends. In 1682 Alexandrina Maxwell, a spinster, was resident at the Cape, and in a list of 1685 she appears as the wife of Lodewyk Brureau, probably intended for Louis de Berault.

Bevernage or Bevernagie, Francina of Meerbrakel, Oudenaarden, married here in 1700 to Jacob Mouton, q.v.

Bevernage or Bevernagie, Joost, born at Brakel, as above, about 1684, brother of Francina Bevernage; arrived as a "freeman" in 1700 in the Helmeet, and died on 30th September, 1738. An agriculturist at Drakenstein, he was married to Anna van der Wey, of the Cape, born about 1687.

Bevernage or Bevernagie, TheuniS, born at Meerbrakel in 1691, and brother of Joost; apparently did not marry. After leaving, by will dated 1724, a legacy to his sister Francina, he instituted his brother Joost as his heir. Will filed in 1736.

Bisseux, Jacques of Picardy, came in the Vosmaar in 1696 as "freeman," and died on 11th June, 1723, and was buried in the churchyard at Cape Town. In 1720 he is described as a baker. His son Pieter, by his first wife Marie le Febre (died 1700), is described in 1729 as from " Middelburg in Zeeland," and appears to have left no issue. Pieter died in 1735. Jacques Bisseux remarried Elizabeth Posseaux of Paris, born 1682, q.v., and their daughter, Elisabeth, married Albertus Bergh, son of Captain Olof Bergh; they also had a son, Johannes Bisseux.

Bourbounais, Jacob of Mons, a sailor in the service of the Dutch East India Company; in 1692 entered the service of Pierre le Febre, a burgher of Stellenbosch, and two years later went over to Pierre Rochefort, q.v. In 1712 he appears on the list of burghers of Drakenstein.

Bouvat, Daniel, see Couvat.

Brasier, Paul, did not require assistance in 1690; two years later was living in Cape district.

Briet, Suzanne, see Taillefert.

*Bruere (now Bruwer and Bruwel), Estienne of Blois, arrived in 1688 in the Voorschooten; then a bachelor, aged 23 years, and described as a wagonmaker. In the 1690 Fund he appears as "Estienne Bruere and his espoused Esther de Ruelle," a daughter of Daniel de Ruelle, q.v. Estienne Bruere signed himself as Bruere. He remarried at Stellenbosch, on 19th February, 1702, Anne du Puis of Amsterdam, q.v. Descendants.

Buisset, Maria, born at Sedan on the French frontier in 1678; married in January, 1700, at the Domkerk, Amsterdam, to Jean Prieur du Plessis of Poitiers, q.v., surgeon before his second arrival at the Cape. By him she had Maria, born 1702, Anna, 1704 and Pieter, August, 1708. On the death of du Plessis, she married Dirk Snith of Nieuwburg, surgeon, in 1711, who died about 1725. She died subsequently about 1751. Maria Buisset practised in Cape Town as a quaUfied midwife. In the church entry of Anna's birth in 1704 the names of the sponsors are Christoffel Buisset and Maria Buisset.

*de Buys or Du Buis (now also found as Buys), Jean of Calais/Paris, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt as an agriculturist; married Sara Jacob of Calais, daughter of the Refugee Pierre Jacob, q.v.

*Carnoy, Antoinette, widow of Phillipe de Clercq, merchant of Doornik, and mother-in-law of Jacques de Savoye of Aeth, q.v., merchant; arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt. In 1698 she signed a power of attorney in favour of Jean Bourla, merchant of Amsterdam.

Caucheteux, see Costeux.

Cellier/Celliers/Cillie/Cilliers/Sellier, Josue of Orleans, born 1667, an agriculturist, vinedresser and carpenter; arrived in 1700 in the Reygersdaal, with his wife Elizabeth Couvret, born 1676 at Orleans. His farm was "De Orleans" at Drakenstein, where he died in October, 1721, leaving five sons and five daughters.

de Clercq, Marie Madeleine of Tournay, daughter of Phillipe de Clercq and Antoinette Carnoy; was married to Jacques de Savoye, q.v.

de Clercq, (now de Klerk), Abraham of Straaskerke alias Serooskerke, Walcheren Island, son of Pieter de Clercq and Sara Cochet, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt, in the service of the Dutch East India Company; married at Stellenbosch, 12th May. 1709, to Magdalena Mouton of Middelburg.

de Clercq, (now de Klerk), Jeanne, sister of above, married Andre Gaucher, q.v.

*Cloudon, Jean of Condé, a shoemaker, came in 1688 in the Oosterlandt; appears on roll of Drakenstein inhabitants in 1700; unmarried.

Cochet, or Couchet, Sara of Oosterhoebrugh, Walcheren, widow of Pieter de Clercq; living in 1687 at Serooskerke, when she came out to the Cape to marry Guillaume du Toit, q.v. See de Clercq above.

*Corbonne, Louis, arrived in 1688 in Berg China, aged 20, then described as a bachelor and cousin of Pierre le Grange; died 1700.

Corbonne, Louise, wife of Jean Mesnard, q.v.

*Cordier (occasionally found now spelt Cortje), Louis, with his wife Francoise Martinet and four children, received assistance in 1690; was an agriculturist, and one of the first elders of the French congregation at Drakenstein; died in 1702. They must have arrived about 1688, for the next year their son, Jacques Cordier, was baptised, and in his will, dated 1713, the latter states his age as 25 years.

Costeux, or Caucheteux, This family came from Marcq, or Marck, near Calais, and their names are found in the Registers of the Protestant church at Guisnes. On the 13th November, 1672, Esaye Caucheteux, labourer, aged 25, son of the late Anthoine Caucheteux and late Elizabeth Chnquemeur (she died at Marcq, 14th June, 1672, aged 69), was married to Suzanne Albert, aged 22, daughter of Pitre Albert and the late Noelle de Bus. The following baptisms of their children ,are noted: Esaye Caucheteux, born 23rd September, 1673, at Fort Brule (sponsor Isaac Carpenter and Sara Albert); Suzanne Caucheteux, born 18th October, 1676, at Marcq; Pierre Caucheteux, born 21st May, 1679, at Marcq; Jean and Marie Caucheteux, twins, born 7th December, 1682, at Marcq (Marie died young).

*Costeux, Esaias, Jean and Susanne Children of Esaias Costeux and Susanne Albert, French Refugees from Marcq, near Calais. In the 1690 list Esaias and Susanne are described as two orphans now living with Nicolaas Kleef (or Cleef). Esaias became an agriculturist in Stellenbosch district, and died in 1708, leaving a widow Anna van Marseveen (van Marcevene) but no issue, his brother and sister being his heirs in 1709. The widow married Abraham Prevot of Calais, g.v. Susanne Costeux married (before 1694) Gerrit Meyer (probably a Refugee) and died about 1714. Jean, like the foregoing, was born at or near Calais, 1682, and married at Cape Town, 22nd May, 1712, Anna Gildenhuys of the Cape, born 1699; he was buried in June, 1713, in the churchyard at Cape Town. He returned to Europe in 1718; signed Costeux.

Couteau, Marie of Soudiere in Dauphine, see Pierre Lombard.

*Couvat, Daniel, The names Daniel Bouvat and Daniel Couvat are met with in the records. I am of opinion they refer to the same person, and I have treated them as such. Described as a French Refugee. Given permission in 1708 to return to Europe. In 1702 he entered into a contract with Pierre Rousseau, and is described in the body of the document as "Daniel Boat, free agriculturist living at Drakenstein"; he signs it D. Bouvat. In 1694 also described as French Refugee Daniel Boat.

Couvret, Paul, arrived in 1700 in the Reygersdaal with his wife Anne Vallete, born at Bazoze near Orleans, and a little child Anna Ehzabeth. He lived at Paarl and was an agriculturist, a vinegrower and shoemaker, and in 1712 returned to Europe with wife and four children.

Couvert, Elizabeth of Orleans, wife of Josue Cellier, q.v. She was probably a sister of Paul. She and her husband also arrived in the Reygersdaal.

Cronier or Crosnier (now Cronje), Estienne and Pierre of Normandy, two brothers, who came out in 1698 in the Driebergen. Estienne an agriculturist, owned the farms "Champagne" and "Olyvenhout" in Wagonmakers Valley. He died, unmarried, 2nd September, 1724. Pierre, born in 1671, married Susanna Taillefert (died 13th February, i724),widowof Jean Garde, q.v.,a.nd daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, q.v. Pierre Cronier died 2nd September, 1718, and left issue, who were the heirs of his brother. His son Pierre, from whom the South African Cronje descends, married Susanna Roi.

D'Atis, Cecilia, see Dumont and des Pres.

Delport, See de la Porte.

*des Pres or du Pre (now du Preez), Hercule of Cortryk, now Courtrai, arrived in 1688 in the Schelde with his wife Cecilia D'Atis and four children. In 1690 he received help for himself and five children. He must have died about 1695. In the inventory of his deceased estate he is stated to have left six children. The widow remarried Pierre Dumont, q.v. Descendants of Hercule des Pres. The children were:

*des Pres or du Pre (now du Preez), Hercule of Courtrai, a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch and Drakenstein, and Captain of the Burgher Cavalry, died 9th May, 1721. He married (i) Marie le Febre, by whom he had issue, (2) Corneha Vilhon (Viljoen). He signed himself as des Pres. He took an active part in the movement against Governor Willem Adriaan van der Stel.

*des Pres or du Pre (now du Preez), Elizabeth of Courtrai. She was sponsor on 24th May, 1688, to Charles Prevot, baptised on the Schelde. She married Pieter Jansz van Marseveen (van Marcevene), who died 1728, and by him left (i) Anna, married Abraham Prevot, (2) Cecilia, married Charles du Plessis, (3) Pieter.

*des Pres or du Pre (now du Preez), Marie Jeanne, described in her will as of Bethune, married Jacques Theron of Nismes, q.v.

*des Pres or du Pre (now du Preez), Philippe of Courtrai, an agriculturist, married Elizabeth Prevot, born 1683 at Marcq, near Calais, daughter of Charles Prevot, q.v. They had a large family.

des Ruelles, See de Ruelle.

Drouin, Phillipe, came in the Driebergen in 1698, and two years later was living as an agriculturist in the Stellenbosch district. His will, proved 29th September, 1702, instituted as his heir the Refugee Gideon Malherbe "for his true friendship shown to me." On the 7th December, 1701, the Directors of the Dutch East India Company wrote to the Cape Government and said "P.S.—Henri Rou, refugee minister, has given us a bag marked P.D.X.X. containing / 142 : 10 to be delivered to the French fugitive Philip Drouin of the Cape. We could not refuse to accede to this pious request, as it was an inheritance sent to us out of his father's estate, who had died in France." This money was handed over to the Cape Orphan Chamber, which paid it to Gideon Malherbe as heir.

*du Buis, See de Buys.

du Buisson, David of Rochelle, married in August, 1707, to Claudine Lombard, daughter of the Refugee Pierre Lombard, q.v. In 1716 he was living in Hottentots Holland, and died in 1722. He was schoolmaster to the children of Pierre Joubert.

Dumont, Pierre [Robert], an agriculturist at Drakenstein, in 1700 married Cecilia D'Atis, widow of Hercules des Pres, Sr. She died 15th November, 1720, and was then living on the farm "Soetendal" in Drakenstein.

*du Plessis, Jean Prieur, born at Poitiers in Poitou in 1638, a surgeon, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt with his wife Madelaine Menanteau, or Menanto, of Poitiers. In 1694 he returned to Europe with his wife and two children in the ship Sir Jansland, as he could earn very little either by his profession or as a farmer. His wife must have died in Europe, for in January, 1700, at the Domkerk, Amsterdam, he married Maria Buisset of Sedan, q.v., with whom he returned to the Cape. By the first wife he had Charles du Plessis, born 1688, Jean Louis du Plessis, born 1691. According to his will with Maria Buisset, the names of their children are given as Marie, born 1702, Anne, 1704, and Pieter, 1708. There was a Judith du Plessis, who in her will stated she was born in Ireland, probably a daughter born on the return voyage to South Africa.

*du Plessis, Charles, son of the above, born on the Oosterlandt and baptised on board in Table Bay on the i8th April, 1688; married in 1712 Cecilia Marcevene (or van Marseveen), and died i8th September, 1737. On 5th Januar5% at Drakenstein, his widow married Wynand Louw, bachelor, surgeon in the Hospital. Charles du Plessis was probably apprenticed to his father, as we find him practismg as a surgeon.

du Preez, See des Pres.

du Puis or du Puys, Anne Martin, widow of Jean du Puis, by whom she had Anne Madeleine and Susanna. She remarried Salomon de Gournay, q.v. (see will in Stellenbosch Archives made out in her name and that of her second husband).

du Puys, Anne Madeleine of Paris, daughter of above, married David Seneschal, or Senecal, of Dieppe, q.v.

du Puys, Susanna, sister of Anne Madeleine, married 19th February, 1702, to Estienne Bruere of Blois, q.v. In 1695 she stood sponsor at Drakenstein to a child of David Senecal. In the Guisnes Church Register there are several references to the family of du Puis. In 1668 Daniel des Ruelles, who came to the Cape, was present at the marriage of Jean du Puy and Marie Facon. In 1679 Marie du Puy died, and the entry of her death was witnessed by Suzanne and Anne du Puis.

Durand, Jean of La Motte Chalan9on in Dauphine, born about 1669, a surgeon and farmer at Drakenstein, died March, 1727; was heir of Jean Parisel, q.v. He was a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden, and married (i) at Cape Town, 29th February, 1702, Anna Vermeulen of the Cape, born 1686, (2) Wilhelmina van Zijl of Haarlem. Descendants.

Durier, Marie Catarina, widow of Guillaume de Haas, lived at French Hoek; her will, dated nth August, 1718, was witnessed by Jean Gardiol and Andre Huibaux.

du Tuillet, Jean, arrived in 1698 in the Driebergen. He was an agriculturist at Drakenstein.

Fouche, Gasper, sailed in the Voorschooien in 1688, aged 21 years; probably he died on the way out.

*Fouché, Philippe, arrived 1688 in the Voorschooien with his wife Anne Fouche and children, Anne, aged 6, Esther, 5 and Jacques, 3. In 1690 he received assistance for himself, wife and two children, and in 1692 had four children. Descendants living.

Fourie, Louis, an agriculturist in the Wagonmakers Valley, where, in 1699, he received a grant of land and called it Slange Rivier; here he lived until his death, which must have been about 1750, when an inventory in his estate was filed. In terms of his will this place was to devolve upon his son Louis Fourie, who waived his right, and it was purchased at auction by Gabriel Rossouw. He owned another place, Zeekoedrift, on the Gouritz River. Louis Fourie, sen. married (i) Susanna Cordier. daughter of the Refugee Louis Cordier, q.v.; she died about 1715, and he married (2) Anna Jourdan, daughter of Pierre Jourdan, q.v. At his death he left five children or representatives by the first wife and eight children by the second.

*Fracassé, Matthieu of Provence, born 1662, agriculturist at Drakenstein, arrived 1688 in Berg China; married Jeanne Cordier, daughter of the Refugee Louis Cordier, q.v. He had a son Jean Fracasse, baptized 27th July, 1698, and a daughter Elizabeth, baptized 15th May, 1701 (probably died young). His third child was Susanna, who was living in Amsterdam in 1718, having been left a legacy by Matthieu Arniel, q.v. Matthieu Fracasse must have returned to Europe before 17 13, as his brother-in-law Jacques Cordier refers to him as being in Holland.

Furet, Jean, sailed in 1688 in Berg China, a bachelor, aged 18; probably died on the way out.

*Gardé, Jean, an agriculturist at Drakenstein; at the distribution in 1690 he was then unmarried being in partnership with Jean Durand. In 1691 he received a grant of land, on which the farm Rhone is. He married Susanna Taillefert, daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, q.v. In 1704 her name appears on the list of inhabitants of the Cape district as his widow. She remarried before 1710 the Refugee Pierre Cronier, q.v., and after his death in 1718 she married Jacob Naude, q.v. Jean Garde had two children, Jean, born I701,and Susanna, 1703, who married Josue Joiibert, son of the Refugee Pierre Joubert, q.v. Jean died 27th January, 1784, unmarried, having bought in 1724 the farm Versailles from the estate of his mother. It is interesting to note that attached to the inventory of Mrs. Naude's estate in 1724 is a document of monies due written in French, and that in connection with her funeral expenses this statement appears, "for the service in the church in the French language, 3 rixdollars."

Gardiol, Jean. His name appears on the burgher roll of Drakenstein for 1690, when he was living at Drakenstein, and is mentioned as "compagnon" with the three brothers de Vilhers. In 1700 he was livmg in the Stellenbosch district, being unmarried. At first one is inclined to associate him with the previous name, Jean Garde, and conclude he is one and the same as suggested in a footnote to de Vilhers' hst,^ but this cannot be. Jean Garde died before 1704, as his widow's name appears on list of inhabitants of the Cape district, when that of Jan Gardiol is given as a resident of Drakenstein. We find the signature of Jean Gardiol as witness to an inventory in 1722, and in 1725 his name appears amongst the church members of Drakenstein. He died in 1738. Probably the following two were his sisters.

Gardiol, Marguerite of Provence, born 1674, married before 1695 Jacob de Villiers, q.v., died at Drakenstein in 1716.

Gardiol, Susanne, sister of above, born at de la Coste, Provence; married in 1689 Abraham de Villers of la Rochelle, q.v., who died 31st March, 1720. She married secondly Claude Marais, q.v., with whom she entered into an antenuptial contract on the 13th October, 1721.

Gaucher, (now Gous and Gouws), Andre of Languedoc, came out in the Spierdyk in 1690 to earn his Hving as a blacksmith and agriculturist; married at the Cape, 19th August, 1691 (then a widower), to Jeanne le Clair (de Clercq) of Zeeland. In 1690 he required no assistance from the Fund. Jeanne le Clair or le Clercq (she signed du Klerk) was the daughter of Sara Cochet, q.v., then the wife of Guillaume du Toit and formerly married to Pieter le Clercq. Jeanne was probably also born at Straaskerke in Walcheren Island, where her brother Abraham q.v. was born. Andre Gaucher had been previously married before coming out, for in 1698 monies from his deceased estate were paid into the Orphan Chamber on behalf of his children, Steven (Estienne) aged 14, described as being a child of a former marriage. Pieter 5, Sara, 3 and Andries, 6 weeks. Pieter and Andries left descendants.

Gaucher, (now Gous and Gouws), Steven of Geneva, son of above, married here in 1719 and left descendants.

*Godefroy, Paul, born 1666, arrived in the Voorschooten in 1688; died at Dal Josaphat, Drakenstein, 1699. [Le Maire de la Rochelle en 1627 etait Jean Godefroy aine Sr. de Richard.]

Goiraud, Pierre, sailed in 1688 in the Berg China with his wife Francoise Rousse; he was then aged 30 and she 28 years; they apparently died on the voyage.

*Gournai or de Gournay, Salomon, came in the Zuid Beveland in 1688, an agriculturist at Drakenstein; in 1694 was granted by Governor van der Stel the farm Salomon's Valley at Drakenstein. He married Anna Martin, widow of Jean du Puis (du Puys), and had a child in 1693. His eldest brother, Jean de Gournay, was living in 1712 in London, where Salomon returned in 1718. He held the office of elder in the Drakenstein congregation. Signed himself as de Gournay.

Grillion, Marie, wife of Gideon Malherbe, q.v.

*Gros, Antonie

Hanseres, or Hanseret, Gerard, born at St. Omer in Artois 1652, son of Lyvin Hanseres and Francoise de Beavois, citizens of St. Omer (both died there). Gerard was a mason at Stellenbosch, and married Gabrilla Waerand (or Wavrant, dead in 1702). They had Jan Joseph, born at St. Omer 1684, and Maria Gabrilla, also born there, 1679, both children living at their birthplace in 1702. By a will which he made in 1712, only Maria Gabrilla appears to be living. He left legacies to the following people residing at St. Omer: Anna Gassier, widow, 300 guldens; Nicolaus Dannel. Master mason and his "compeer," Omes du Bois, Master Mason, each a like sum, and 70 guldens to Jan la Mory, Potter. In 1718 he left for Europe.

*Hugod or Hugot (now Hugo), Daniel, born 1663-5, a smith, his name found in the Stellenbosch records on 6th August, 1689. On 1st August, 1691, received grant of the land on which is the farm Sion, Drakenstein, where he carried on agricultural pursuits. Daniel Hugo, who signed himself Hugot, was a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden. He married Anna, daughter of the Refugee Pierre Rousseau, q.v., and died 1724-5. Descendants. See Blignault in list further on.

*Imbert, Jean, born at Nismes, Languedoc, an agriculturist at Drakenstein, received grant of land of farm Languedoc, along the Palmiet River. He died 1723, and instituted as his heir Pierre Joubert of Provence, agriculturist at Drakenstein, in recognition of faithful services rendered. He does not appear to have married.

Jacob (now Jacobs and Jacobse), Pierre of Calais, with wife and three children, received assistance in 1690. In the registers of the Protestant church at Guisnes will be found the baptismal entries of the children of a Jacob and his wife Suzanne de Vos; several of them died in Europe. He arrived here before 1690 with his wife and three children, Daniel, Sara and Suzanne. Pierre Jacob died before 1698. and his widow married Nicolas de Lanoy, q.v.. and in the inventory of her estate in 1708 she gives the names of her three children as above. Descendants. The following three were his children:

Jacob (now Jacobs and Jacobse), Daniel of Calais, born 14th September, 1673, at Vieille Eglise, not far from Calais, son of above. A farmer at Drakenstein, he married Louise Cordier, daughter of the Refugee Louis Cordier, q.v. Their son Pieter was baptised at Drakenstein on 14th October, 1703. According to the inventory in his estate in 1713 he left six children.

Jacob (now Jacobs and Jacobse), Sara of Calais, born 7th October, 1677, at Vieille Eglise. Married (i) Daniel Terrier, q.v.; three children baptised at Drakenstein, a son Pierre in 1699; no descendants in male line. (2) Jean du Buis, q.v.

Jacob (now Jacobs and Jacobse), Suzanne of Calais, married Gerrit van Vuuren, and died about 1696.

Jacob (now Jacobs and Jacobse), Elsie. An Elsie Jacob stood sponsor at a baptism in Drakenstein church on 9th March, 1697, and on several occasions thereafter.

Joubert, Pierre of de la Motte d'Aigues in Provence, born 1663,-1665, arrived in the Berg China in 1688 with his wife Isabeau Richard of Provence, born 1668-1670 According to Captain Hinde he married, on ist February, 1688, Susanne Reyne de la Roque, of d'Autheron in Provence, "tous deux embarquirent dans le vaisseau le Mont de Sinai faissant voile pour le Cap de Bonne Esperance..." He suggests that the wife was the same as Susanne Rene, q.v., who must have died in Holland or on the voyage, as he arrived with Isabeau Richard. He was an agriculturist and possessed many farms at Drakenstein. Pierre Joubert died 31st June, 1732, and his widow 1748. The farms owned at the time of her death were Bellingham, granted in 1695, Lamorin, La Roche, La Motte, La Provence and De Plaisante, the latter being at Waveren (Tulbagh). Descendants.

Jourdan (now Jordaan), Jean of Cabriere, born 1660, arrived 1688 in Berg China, son of Jeanne Marthe widow Jourdan, q.v. He married Elizabeth (or Isabeau) le Long, and died before January, 1699, when he was stated to have possessed the farm La Motte. He left five minor children. His youngest daughter was baptised after his death.

Jourdan (now Jordaan), Jeanne Marthe, widow, sailed in the Berg China in 1688, aged 60 years, probably died on way out.

Jourdan (now Jordaan), Marie, a widow, aged 40 in 1688, when she sailed in Berg China with her daughters Jeanne Rousse (Roux), aged 15, Marie Rousse, 10 and Marguerite, 7. The mother and Jeanne probably died on the voyage. For Marie and Marguerite, see under Roux.

Jourdan (now Jordaan), Paul, born 1666, a bachelor, sailed in the Berg China in 1688, apparently died on board. He was 'cousin germain' to Pierre Jourdaan and Andre Pelanchon q.v.

Jourdan (now Jordaan), Pierre. In the Berg China two Pierres Jourdan, both bachelors and both aged 24 years, sailed from Holland and arrived at the Cape, both appearing on the distribution list of 1690, and in 1692, in a list of inhabitants of Drakenstein, appear the names of Pierre Jourdan in partnership with Louis Barre and Pierre Jourdan of Cabriere. Of the latter the following particulars are found. He was the son of the widow Jeanne Marthe and married Anna Fouche, who died about 1713, leaving children Anna, aged 15, Joseph, 12, Susanna, 16. He next married Maria Verdeau, daughter of the Refugee Hercule Verdeau, q.v. In the joint will of these two, executed in 1719, he described himseLf as between 56-57 and she as 19 years of age. He lived on the farm Cabriere, which came to his son Joseph, in whose deceased estate it is recorded that two silver spoons and one silver fork were given to his children "in remembrance of their grandfather." Pierre Jourdaan died 28th October, 1723.

Labat, Jacques, born at Fontenay le Comte, Poitou, son of Jacques Labat and Susanne Laurent; his name appep.rs on the burgher rolls at the Cape in 1693; in 1605 he was described as from Bordeaux.

Labat, Nicolas, brother of above, married at Drakenstein, 13th June, 1717, to Elizabeth Vivier, when he is described as of Poinetri. His name appears in 1692. and he died 30th December, 1717.

la Batte, Jeanne of Saumur, born 1663, wife of Guillaume Niel or Nel, q.v.

la Grange, See le Grange.

Lanoy, or de Lanoy, Marie of Auhs (died 1704), married at Stellenbosch in 1698 to Hans Hendrik Hatting of Spyer. Another (probably same) Marie Lanoy married Hary Lecrevent, Lescervain or Lekervain. It seems that his name was corrupted into Ary Lekkerwyn, for in the inventory of his estate in 1697 Marie de Lanoy is described as his widow. Their first child, baptised 18th January, 1696: Marie Lanoy, mentioned as sponsor on 22nd April, 1695.

Lanoy, or de Lanoy, Nicolas, Matthieu, his brother and their mother received assistance in 1690. Nicolas married in 1698 to Susanne de Vos, widow of Pierre Jacob, q.v., and she died in 1708, leaving no issue by him.

Lanoy, or de Lanoy, Susanne, was sponsor in 1696 to son of Daniel Nortier at Drakenstein.

de la Porta (Delporte, now Delport), Jacques of Ryssel (now Lille), arrived in 1699 in the Cattendyk with his wife Sara Vitu or Vitout, q.v. He was an agriculturist at Drakenstein, and died on the 9th December, 1739, his wife having predeceased him in 1724. In the Drakenstein (Paarl) church register the following appears: "Jacque de porte et Sara Vitout il on presante eux meme un petit enfant que dieu Leur a donne, au saint bapteme le 4 Octobre, 1699." For reference to the Vitu family see under that name. Several descendants living.

*La Tatte, Nicolaas, likely meant for Nicolas Labat ?

Lauret, see Loret

Lecheret, Legeret, or Leseret, Jean of Champagne, came as a freeman in the Agatha in 1693, a burgher at Drakenstein; returned to Europe in 1716.

le Febre, or le Febure, Paul, a surgeon of Chaurry, married firstly Elizabeth Taillefert, daughter of Jean Taillefert, apothecary at Chateau Thierry, from where Isaac Taillefert, q.v., came. Paul arrived in the service of the Dutch East India Company, and practised as a surgeon at Stellenbosch. He married secondly EHzabeth Sezille (Sisilha), and two children of this marriage were baptised at the Cape in 1699 and 1701 respectively. In 1705 with his wife and two children he returned to Europe.

le Fevre, Marie of Marcq, near Calais, daughter of David le Fevre and Elizabeth le Bleu, married (i) Charles Preuost or Prevot, q.v., (2) H. Eekhoff, (3) Louis de Perrone, q.v.

le Grand, Gideon, a surgeon, in 1698 was living in the Stellenbosch district, and died in 1710, leaving no heirs at the Cape but a brother, Abraham le Grand, living at Haarlem. He was a Heemraad of Drakenstein.

*Le Grange, Pierre of Cabrlere in Provence, born circa 1664, arrived in 1688 in Berg China; married on 16th November, 1704, Margaretha Kool of Amsterdam, born circa 1690. Descendants. le Long, Charles, son of Jean le Long, q.v., arrived in 1688 in the Zuid Beveland as a freeman

le Long, Elizabeth, wife of Jean Jourdan, q.v., and Jacques Malan, q.v.

*le Long, Marie. When she received assistance in 1690 was married to Adriaan van Wyk.

le Riche, Louis, arrived in 1698 in the Driebergen, married Susanna Fouche; died 8th October, 1732.

*le Roux, Jean of Normandy, married to Maria de Haase of Ryssel (Lille). He signed himself as le Roex, mentioned in Stellenbosch records in 1690.

*le Roux, Jean of Blois, born 1667, arrived in 1688 in the Voorschooten, and was married to Jeanne Mouy. On the 8th November, 1711, a posthumous son of his, Daniel, was baptised in the Drakenstein church. He left three sons and one daughter.

*le Roux, Gabriel of Blois, born 1671, brother of the above, arrived in 1688. He married Maria Catherina le Febre. When Daniel le Roux was baptised, a posthumous son of Gabriel was also christened Gabriel on the same day. At his death he left five minors.

*Lombard, Pierre of Pointais (Pontaix) in Dauphine, born 1658; in the 1690 distribution described as "a sick man with wife and one child." He married Marie Couteau of Soudiere in Dauphine, born 1659, who died ist April, 1718. He was an agriculturist at Drakenstein. Descendants.

Loret, Guillaume of Nantes, born 1671, came out in 1695, died at Drakenstein 5th January, 1718; married Elisabeth Joubert, daughter of the Refugee Pierre Joubert. On 18th May, 1696, he signed a power of attorney in favour of Revd. Petrus de Joucourt, minister of the French congregation at Middelburg. He left only daughters. In a letter in 1707 to Governor W. A. van der Stel, the Rev. Beck refers to Loret as a French Refugee who nine years previous was a Roman Catholic, but had made public confession of the reformed religion.

Madan, Antoine, sailed in the Berg China in 1688 with his wife Elisabeth Verdette and daughter. He was 38 and she 23 years and their child ten months. All three probably died on the voyage.

*Magnet, Jean, was made a deacon of the French congregation in 1698, and elder in 1700. See Manier.

*Malan, Jacques, married Elizabeth le Long, widow of Jean Jourdan. He lived at Hottentots Holland, and was a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch. She died in 1736, and at her death the estate possessed farms "De Faisante Kraal" on the Bot River and one in Hottentots Holland. In 1713 Jacques Malan was given in freehold the farm La Motte, which he had held since 1694. See Roux, Pierre. Descendants.

*Malherbe, Gideon, bom 1663, arrived in 1688 in the Voorschooten; was then a bachelor; in the 1690 distribution hst he is described "with wife," who was Marie Grillion. Gideon Malherbe was an agriculturist, and died in 1723, leaving issue. Two farms mentioned in his deceased estate were "De Groene Fonteyn" and "Hexenberg," vide Drouin. Descendants.

Manier, (Manie, Manje), Jean, born at Calais, an agriculturist in partnership with Abraham Bleuset at Dal Josaphat. His name is found on 15th March, 1688, and in his will made jointly with Bleuset in 1704, and witnessed by Pierre Rousseau and Jacques Therond, he gave his age as 55 years. In 1700 he stood sponsor to a child of Theron. Is it probable that Jean Magnet and Jean Manier are the same?

*Mantior, Zacharie. In his will, dated 1720 and filed 22nd August, 1731, he is described as an old man, having no relatives or friends, and leaves his property to the Drakenstein church on condition they support him during his lifetime.

*Marais, Charles of Plessis, arrived in 1688 in the Voorschooien with his wife Catherine Taboureux and four children, Claude, aged 24, Charles, 19, Isaac, 16 and Marie, 6. In April, 1689, he was murdered at Drakenstein by a Hottentot. His widow and four children received help from the Fund. Descendants.

Marais, Claude of Plessis Marle, near Paris (the name given to the farm where the Marais family first settled) was one of the first elders chosen for the French congregation in 1691. In 1692 the name of his wife is given as Maria Avice, q.v., and on the 13th October, 1721, he executed an antenuptial contract with Susanna Gardiol, q.v., born at de la Coste in Provence, widow of Abraham de Villiers. She died about 1729, at which time Claude Marais possessed the following property: a house in Cape Town and the farms Meerlust, Lekkerwyn, Plessis Marie and Wei van Pas.

Marais, Charles of Plessis, son of Charles Marais, died 7th August, 1735; married Anne de Ruelle of Guisnes, daughter of the Refugee Daniel de Ruelle, q.v. Many descendants of Charles Marais living.

Marais, Marie, who describes herself in 1716 in her will with her first husband, Estienne Niel, as aged 34 years and born at "Hierpoix," probably Hurepois, south of Paris; she was the daughter of Charles, and married secondly Pierre Taillefert, and thirdly, in 1734, Pieter Booysen.

Mare (Marees), Ignace or Ignatius, married at Cape Town on 7th February, 1706, to Susanna van Vuuren, spinster of the Cape. In the marriage entry he is said to be a widower and of Calabria. In 1707 he was granted permission by Governor van der Stel to live at Drakenstein. Descendants.

Marthe, Jeanne, widow Jourdan, sailed in Berg China in 1688; was then 60 years old; died on the voyage.

Martin, Anne, married Jean du Puis, q.v., and Salomon de Gournay.

*Martin, Antonie, born at Uzes (d'Uses) in Languedoc about 1664, arrived in 't Wapen van Alkmaar in 1688, and lived at Drakenstein. Inventory in his deceased estate dated 1699. He had only one hand.

*Martineau, Michel, living at Drakenstein in 1690 and working in partnership with Pierre Rousseau, Jean Cloudon and Francois Retief.

Martinet, Francoise, wife of Louis Cordier, q.v.

Menanteau, Madeleine, wife of Jean Prieur du Plessis, q.v.

*Mesnard, Jean of Provence, born circa 1659, arrived in Berg China 1688 with his wife Louise Corbonne and six children, Jeanne, 10, George, 9, Jacques, 8, Jean, 7, Phillippe, 6, and a baby of five months. In 1690 he was a widower with four children.

Mesnard, Philippe of Provence, son of above; only one to marry and leave issue; married in 1712 Jeanne Mouy. Descendants.

Mesnard, Pierre of Dauphine, born 1668, arrived in 1688. One of the first deacons of the French congregation; married Aletta de Savoye, daughter of Jacques de Savoye of Aeth, q.v. Descendants.

Mille, Jeanne of Provence, see Arniel.

Mouton, Jacques of Steenwerk (Steenwerck), near Ryssel (Lille), arrived in 1699 in the Donkervliet; was an agriculturist at Drakenstein, and married (i) Catherine I'Henriette, by whom he had Jacob, Antonie and Marie (she remained in Europe and married Pierre le Roy); (2) Maria de Villiers, (3) Francina de Bevernage, q.v. He settled on the farm Steenwerp. Descendants.

Mouy, Pierre of St. Amant, arrived as a freeman in 1699 in the Donkervliet; an agriculturist at Drakenstein; died 31st July, 1735.

Mouy, Jeanne, wife of (i) Jean le Roux, q.v., (2) Philippe Mesnard.

Mouy, Marie, born 1685, wife of Francois Retif or Retief, q.v. [Probably these two were daughters of Pierre.]

*Mysal, Jean

Niel (now Nel), Estienne, born in Dauphine, 1669, a soldier in the service of the Dutch East India Company in 1693, and later lived at Drakenstein and described as an agriculturist. He married Marie (Maria Magdalena) Marais, q.v., of Hierpoix, born in 1673. He died in 1738 and she on 7th July, 1716. When he made his will in 1736 he was living at Rondebosch on the farm Rodenberg, belonging to his son-in-law, Andries Grove. The will states that it was read over to him in the Dutch language, which he understood and spoke well. He left issue, but his only son left a daughter. Signed his name as Niel.

Niel (now Nel), Guillaume of Rouen, born 1663-4; received assistance in 1690 for himself, wife and two children. He married Jeanne la Batte, q.v., of Saumur, born 1663. It is probable (?) that he was a brother of Estienne Niel. When he and his wife executed their will in 1734, filed in same year, they were living in the Cape district. Descendants.

*Nortier or Nourtier (now Nortje), Daniel, a carpenter, arrived in the Oosterlandt in 1688; received assistance for himself, wife and child. He married Maria Vitout. He signed himself Daniel Nourtier. Maria Vitout remarried Matthys Michiels, and at her death in 1711 left Elizabeth Nortier, aged 20, Anthony Nortier, 18, Jonas, 16 and Jean, 14. Descendants.

*Nortier or Nourtier (now Nortje), Jacob of Calais, an agriculturist, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt; died 20th September, 1732. Married at Drakenstein on 8th August, 1717, to Margaretha Mouton of the Cape.

*Nortier or Nourtier (now Nortje), Jean, arrived as above. All three Nortiers are described as "domestiques" of Jacques de Savoye, when they came out. Jean Nortier obtained a grant of land in 1694.

Nortier or Nourtier, The three brothers came from near Calais. In the register of the Protestant church at Guines there are several entries of Nourtiers being sponsors at baptisms: Sept. 1676. Eve Dupont, agée 46-47 ans, femme de Jean Nourtier, dec.: a St. Blaize par de Guisnes le 23. T. Daniel Nourtier. Oct. 1671. Jean Nourtier was sponsor to a daughter of Jean Francomme. Jean Nourtier was witness in 1674 to the death of a son of Nicolas de la Haye; in November, 1669, to death of Marie Selingue, wife of Anthoine Coutteau; and was present at the marriage in 1668 of Jean Liennard and Jeanne Six. On 14th October, 1677, Jean Nourtier "veuf maitre carpentier," aged 46, "demte. a St. Blaize par Guines, married Anne de Sainne, aged 51.

*Parisel, Jean, according to his will dated 13th May, 1707, born at Willebeck, about three hours from Paris, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt. An agriculturist, he instituted as his heir the agriculturist Jean Durand, q.v., of Drakenstein.

Paste, Jean, sailed in the Voorschooten in 1688; was then aged 25 years and a bachelor. As he is not mentioned in the 1690 list, he probably died before then or never reached the Cape.

*Pelanchon, Andre, arrived in the Berg China in 1688, then aged 15 years; cousin germain of Pierre and Paul Jourdan.

de Perrone or de Pirrone, Louis of Nazareth (Mazeres ?), a burgher at Drakenstein, married at Stellenbosch, 19th October, 1692, Maria le Fevre, previously married to Charles Prevot, q.v., and Hendrik Eekhof. de Perrone died in 1696. See reference under L. de Berault.

*Perrotit, Marguerite, a widow, with her two children received assistance in 1690.

*Pinard (now Pienaar), Jacques, born 1665, a carpenter, arrived in 1688 with his wife Esther Fouche, born 1667, whom he married when the- ship Voorschooten sailed from Holland. In 1690 he and his wife received assistance. He remarried Martha le Febre and left two children, Pieter, born 1690 and Jacques 1692, by his first wife, who died about 1697, and five others by his second wife. He died before 1714. Descendants.

Posseaux or Pogeau, Elizabeth of Paris, born 1682, arrived at Cape in 1700 in the Reygersdaal; married (i) Jacob Bisseux, q.v., (2) Abraham Bleuset, q.v. She died about 1726.

Potier (now Potje), Jacques of Moukron (or Moecroon) in Flanders, arrived in 1699 as a soldier in the Westhoven. In 1704 he became a burgher, and lived at Drakenstein. He married in 1705 and died 23rd February, 1739. As his heir he instituted Andries du Toit.

Pouvoir, Daniel, mentioned as a "French Refugee, in 1694. (Crim. Process Papers, 1694, in re Antony Martin—declaration by latter dated 9th October. 1694.) May be meant for Bouvat or Couvat, q.v.

*Prévot, Provo, Provost or Pruvost, Charles of Calais, his wife Marie le Fevre, born 1651, with their three children Abraham, Anne and Elizabeth Prévot, arrived from Amsterdam in 1688 in the Schelde. On the arrival of the latter in Table Bay a son (baptised on board Charles) was born, one of his sponsors being Elizabeth des Pres. Charles Prevot was deceased in July, 1688, as there is an entry then of the widow of "Carel Provo." In 1690 his widow remarried in 1688 to Hendrik Eekhoff of Essen received assistance for herself and four children. She married for the third time Louis de Perrone, q.v., by whom she had two children. From the register of the Protestant church at Guisnes the following particulars of this family are drawn: On the 8th October, 1673, Charles Preuost, "maitre charon," aged 23, son of Henry Preuost and Jeanne de Viffe (de Vief ?),"natif de Dombroy pre de I'llle et demte. a Dunquerque," was married to Marie le Fevre, aged 22, daughter of the late David le Fevre and Elizabeth le Bleu, "natiue de Marcq, et demte. aussi Dunquerque." The children born were: David Pruvost, born at Marcq, March, 1675, died 1685; Abraham Pruvost, born at Marcq, May, 1679; Anne Pruvost, born at Marcq, February, 1681; Elizabeth Pruvost, born at Marcq, November, 1683.

*Prévot, Provo, Provost or Pruvost, Abraham, son of above, married at Stellenbosch on I2th May, 1709, to Anna van Marseveen (Marcevene), widow of Esaias Costeux. They left two daughters.

*Prévot, Provo, Provost or Pruvost, Anne, married Schalk Willem van der Merwe. They lived on their farm Wittenberg at Paarl, and left a very large family, from which a great number of the v. d. Merwe family is descended. She died about 1740.

*Prévot, Provo, Provost or Pruvost, Elizabeth, married Philippe des Pres of Courtrai, q.v., and by him had a large family.

Réné or Resine, Susanne, a spinster, sailed in 1688 in the Berg China, then aged 20. See Joubert.

*Retif (now Retief), Francois, an agriculturist at Drakenstein, born 1663, died 24th September, 1721; married in 1700 Marie Mouy, born 1685, died 21st September, 1758.

Richard, Isabeau, wife of Pierre Joubert, q.v.

*Rochefort, Pierre, born at Grenoble, Dauphine, son of Sieur Eduard Arnout and Virgine Chevalier, citizens of Grenoble, who died there (both dead in 1702). He received the grant of land on which the farm Vlottenburg stands, in the Stellenbosch district. In 1708 he was a deacon of the Stellenbosch church.

*Rol, Jean of Provence, died 1720; married in 1712 Maria Catherina le Febre, widow of Gabriel le Roux. Matthieu Arniel, q.v., left his estate to Jan Roy (Roi ?), son of above.

Rosier, Jan of Morsselen (Monsnay), born about 1673, arrived at the Cape in 1699 as a soldier in the Zion, became a free burgher 13th October, 1711; died on 22nd May, 1724. He married (i) Willemina Willems, (2) Margaretha Harmse Harting.

Rossaux, see under Rousseau.

Rousse, Francoise, see Goiraud and also Roux.

*Rousseau (now as Rossouw and Roussouw), Pierre of Mer or Menars-la-ville (about four hours north-east of Blois), born about 1666; received assistance in 1690 for himself, wife and one child. Was at the Cape in 1688, as in that year he witnessed the will of Jean Manier, q.v. He was one of the first deacons of the French congregation at Drakenstein, and was a Heemraad for Drakenstein. He died in 1719, having married (i) Anne Retief (died 1710) and (2) Geertruy du Toit. Pierre Rousseau lived on his farm "De Boog van Orleans."

Rousseau, Maria. There is a joint will, dated 1702, of Maria Rossar of Blois and her husband, Jan Jansz. van Eden of Oldenburg. She is stated to be 43 years of age. They married in June, 1688. She remarried Cornelis Joosten van Dalen of Cleverskerck, Zeeland. See joint will in 1711, Stellenbosch Archives.

*Roux, Jean, born at la Morin (or Lormarin), Provence, in 1665, was an agriculturist at Drakenstein, and in 1694 was living at Dal Josaphat. On the 17th February, 1705, he made his will and instituted his father, Philip Roux, then living at la Morin and aged 68, as heir to half his estate, and the Drakenstein Poor Fund heir to the other half. He does not appear to have married, and his will is filed in 1738.

*Roux, Jeanne (aged 15), Marie (aged 10) and Marguerite (aged 7) Sailed in the Berg China in 1688 with their widowed mother, Marie Jourdan. The mother and Jeanne died on the voyage. In 1690 Marie and Marguerite, described as "two little orphans," received assistance from the Batavian Fund. Before 1697 Marguerite Roux married, Estienne Viret of Dauphine, q.v., and in their joint will, dated 14th August, 1726, she describes herself as aged 44 years and coming from Provence. In 1690 Daniel Hugo became indebted to "Mary Rou, a minor daughter of the late Jan Rouw" to the sum of 140 guldens. This amount was paid in 1700 and acknowledged by Estienne Viret. Probably their father Jan Roux and Jean Roux of Provence above named were cousins.

Roux, Paul of Orange, arrived in 1688, the first teacher and "Voorlezer" of the French congregation, died at Drakenstein 7th February, 1723. He married (i), before 1694, Claudine Seugnet of Saintonge; (2) Elizabeth Couvret, widow of the Refugee Josue Cellier. He did not require assistance in 1690. On 7th June, 1696, he passed a power of attorney in favour of Rev. Salomon Bernard, minister of the French congregation, and Nathaniel Goutier, merchant of Amsterdam.

*Roux, Pierre of Cabrière. The church register of Drakenstein states he came from Amsterdam, and on 9th November, 1725, a certificate of membership was granted to him on his proceeding to Batavia. In 1700 a Pieter Roux had been allowed by the Cape Government to go to Europe. In his will, dated 17th September, 1739, drawn up at "Morgenster" in Hottentots Holland, the farm of the Heemraad Daniel Malan, Pierre Roux states he has no parents or friends to whom he is indebted, and appoints the said Malan as his heir on condition that he maintains him for the remainder of his life.

*de Ruelle or des Ruelles, Daniel of Guisnes. Between the years 1668 and 1681 the name of Daniel des Ruelles appears in the church registers of Guisnes. On the 12th July, 1671, he was married there to Anne Goudalle. The children of this marriage were the following, all of whom were born at Guisnes; Ester, born 6th November, 1672; Anne, born loth November, 1673; Daniel, born 26th October, 1675, died in infancy; Daniel, born 14th March, 1677; Pierre, born 6th February, 1681, died in infancy; he was born at Guemps, near Calais. It is probable that Daniel des Ruelles, his wife and three remaining children set out for the Cape, but this is not certain. It is also probable that the wife Anne Goudalle and Daniel the son died on the way out, or maybe they were deceased before he left Europe. However, the names of the two daughters are recorded at the Cape, and in 1690 the father, described as a widower with one child—no doubt, Anne—received assistance from the Fund. Ester had already married the Refugee Estienne Bruere of Blois, q.v. Daniel de Ruelle was apparently here in 1688, as he obtained land in Dal Josaphat but did not get title.

*de Ruelle or des Ruelles, Daniel. Daniel des Ruelles appears in 1700 on the list of Stellenbosch inhabitants with his wife Catharina Taboureux (the widow of Charles Marais, q.v., who had been murdered in 1689), and he died on the 3rd October, 1726.

*de Ruelle or des Ruelles, Anne of Guines, born 1673, married Charles Marais, son of the Refugee Charles Marais, q.v.

*de Ruelle or des Ruelles, Ester of Guines, born 1672, married about 1690 Estienne Bruere of Blois, French Refugee, q.v.

*Sabatier, Pierre of Massiere (Mazeres) in Languedoc, arrived in 1688 in the Voorschooten, a bachelor, then aged 22. Settled as an agriculturist at Drakenstein and returned to Europe in 1700.

de Savoye, Jacques of Aeth, born 1636, arrived in the Oosterlandt in 1688 with his wife Marie Madeleine le Clercq of Tournay, daughter of Philippe le Clercq and Anthoinette Carnoy, and three children. His mother-in-law also came with him. The children were Marguerite de Savoye, then 17 years old, Barbere, 15 years, and Jacques, nine months. In writing about his departure from Europe, the Seventeen informed the Cape Governor that de Savoye had been for many years an eminent merchant of Ghent, where he had been persecuted by the Jesuits to such an extent that his life had even been threatened. In order to escape, he had decided to end his days beyond their reach, and to take with him various Flemish farmers of the reformed religion who had also suffered persecution, and had also resolved to leave their Fatherland for the same reason as de Savoye. Amongst his party were the three brothers Nourtier, who are described as his "domestiques." He, with wife and two children, did not require help in 1690. de Savoye became a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden, and in 1712 he and his wife and her mother returned to Europe. On the 17th July, 1689, a daughter, Aletta, was baptised at Cape Town, and married Pierre Meyer of Dauphine, q.v. On the 29th August, 1694, a son, Philippe Rudolf, was baptised at Drakenstein. The latter does not appear to have married; in his will, filed in 1741, he institutes his nephews and nieces Meyer as his heirs. He joined the service of the Dutch East India Company, and was a junior merchant and "Keldermeester" at the Cape, where he died in 1741 and was buried in the church. Jacques de Savoye was buried October, 17 17. His widow buried May, 1721.

de Savoye, Marguerite, married before 1690 to Christoffel Snyman (in the Drakenstein register, Senayment), descendants still living; (2) Henning Vilhon or Viljoen, son of the Refugee Villion, q.v.

de Savoye, Barbere, married (i) Christiaan Eelers, (2) Elias Kina.

*Senecal or Senechal (now Senekal), David of Dieppe, Normandy, arrived in Zuid Beveland in 1688, an agriculturist; before 1694 married Marie Madeleine du Puis of Paris, and died 16th July, 1746.

Senet, Anthoine, sailed in Berg China in 1688, then aged 19, a bachelor; probably died on the voyage.

Seugnet or Seugneté, Glode-Glaudine, Susanne and Jeanne Probably three sisters from Saintonge, were admitted members of the church at Stellenbosch in April, 1689, having brought attestations from Amsterdam. Glaudine married Paul Roux of Orange before 1694, q.v., and Susanne married Francois du Toit of Ryssel about 1690, q.v.

Simond, Pierre of Embrun, Dauphine, arrived in 1688 in the Zuid Beveland with his wife Anne de Berault. Was the first minister of the French congregation at Drakenstein. He had been pastor of the Refugee congregation at Zirikzee. His children were Catherine, baptised in Cape Town 17th March, 1689, one of her sponsors being Commander Simon van der Stel; Pierre, Jacques, Cleophas, Marie and Lydia, born at Drakenstein. In the 1690 Distribution he is described as "with wife and one child," and did not require assistance. He returned with wife and family to Europe in 1702, being succeeded by Revd. Henricus Beck. Anne de Berault, living in London in 1726, was at that time described as his widow. In 1700 Revd. Simond passed a power of attorney in favour of Advocate Johannes Bodaan, Burgomaster and Director of the Dutch East India Company at Middelburg, and Revd. Petrus de Joucourt, minister of the French congregation at the same place.

Sollier, Durand, a shoemaker at Drakenstein; on 4th October, 1697, he and his wife became members of the Dutch church at Cape Town. He died in September, 1739, and was buried in the Dutch church, Cape Town. In 1702 his name is found as married to Martha Petel, who died in 1715. In 1719 he was an elder of the church at Cape Town. Their only daughter Martha married Renault Berthault de St. Jean of Sanoere, a surgeon, q.v., who came to the Cape. Representatives of this family in the family van der Riet.

Sollier, GilliS, brother of Durand, had been a burgher at the Cape since 1697. In 1718 he was permitted to return to Europe with his wife Anna Rouhn and son David. In 1731 he returned to the Cape with his wife Anna Roulin, his stepson Hendrik Melet, and his sister's daughter. In the list of enrolled members of the Dutch Church, Cape Town, Gillis and his wife are entered on 15th December, 1731, with attestation from Montfort. Amongst the inhabitants of the Cape district in 1731 is Durand Sollier (probably his son) and wife Elizabeth de Villiers.

Taboureux, CatherHie, wife of (i) Charles Marais, q.v.. (2) Daniel des Ruelles, q.v.

*Taillefer or Taillefert, Isaac of Chateau Thierry, in province of Brie, a hatmaker and agriculturist, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt with his wife Suzanne Brief and six children. Isaac was the son of Jean Taillefer, or Taillefert, an apothecary and elder of the church at Monneaux, and his wife Ester Jordin. Isaac Taillefer married Suzanne Briet of the valley of the Essomes, and had established himself as a hatmaker at Chateau Thierry. In the church registers of Nogentel, not far from the latter place, are to be found the entries of the baptisms of his several children. His six children who came with him in 1688 were: Elizabeth, aged 14; Jean, baptised at Nogentel, September, 1680; Isaac, aged 7; Pierre, aged 5; Suzanne, aged 2 and a half; Marie, aged 1, baptised by the monks of the church at Essomes in January, 1687. He lived for some time at Monneaux, where his wife possessed some vineyards, and after 1685 went to live with her family. In 1690 he received assistance for himself, wife and four children, and in 1691 he obtained grants of land upon which the farms Normandy and Picardy stand. He died about 1699, leaving four children, Elizabeth, aged 26, Jean, 22, Pierre, 16, Suzanne 13.

Taillefert, Elizabeth, married the Refugee Pierre de ViUiers, q.v. Numerous descendants, from which the late Baron de Villiers was descended.

Taillefert, Jean, apparently died unmarried.

Taillefert, Pierre, married Marie Marais, widow of Estienne Niel. He died March, 1726. Descendants in the female line; one daughter married Pieter van Niekerk, one Hendrik Albertus Gildenhuys, and the youngest Eduard Christian Hauman.

Taillefert, Susanne, married (i) Jean Garde, q.v., (2) Pierre
Cronje, q.v., (3) Jacob Naude, q.v.

Terreblanche (now Terblanche and Terblans), Estienne of Toulon; his name appears in the church books of Drakenstein in 1703; in 1713 married Martha la Febre, widow of Jacques Pinard, q.v.

, married Sara Jacob of Calais, daughter of the Refugee Pierre Jacob, q.v.

Therond (now Theron), Jacques of Nismes. Laiiguedoc, arrived in the Oosterlandt in 1688 as a soldier in the Company's service; on 31st May, 1688, he became a free burgher. He married Marie Jeanne des Pres of Bethune, q.v., daughter of the Refugee Hercule des Pres, and died 2nd December, 1739, aged 71 years 6 months. Jacques Theron was a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden, and owned the farm Languedoc. Descendants.

Vallète, Anne, wife of Paul Couvret, q.v.

*Verdeau, Hercule, born 1672, arrived in 1688 in the Berg China, died at Drakenstein in 1722; married Maria Catharina Huibeaux, born 1675. They left only daughters. The widow Verdeau died about 1752, in which year an inventory in her deceased estate was filed.

Verdeau, Jacques, born 1668, brother of above, arrived in 1688; probably died shortly after, as he is not mentioned in the 1690 Distribution List.

Verdette, Elizabeth, wife of Antoine Madan, q.v.

*de Villiers, Abraham of la Rochelle, arrived on 6th May, 1689, in the Sion with his two brothers Pierre and Jacob. He married 5th October, 1689, Susanne Gardiol of de la Costé, Provence, and died on 31st March, 1720. The brothers had been sent out on account of their knowledge of the cultivation of the vine. Abraham was one of the first deacons of the French congregation, a Heemraad and Captain of the Burgher Cavalry Corps at Drakenstein. He left only daughters. In the letter from Holland to the Cape in 1688 the three are described as being from "near la Rochelle."

*de Villiers, Jacob, stated in his will in 17 19 to be of "Borgondien", and aged 58; married Margaretha Gardiol of Provence, born 1674. He died on 17th May, 1735, and inventory in her estate filed in June, 1749. [Pierre deVilliers, Jacque and Paul sortirent du royaume France. lis etirent fils de Pierre de Villiers (Archives de la Rochelle).]

*de Villiers, Pierre, married (before 1699) Elizabeth Taillefert, daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, q.v. Numerous descendants from the two brothers. Jacob and Pierre. Pierre de Villiers died 22nd January, 1720, and her will is filed in 1735. In his will, dated 3rd February, 1714, Johannes Guillaume de Grevenbroek, Secretary to the Government during the days of Governor Simon van der Stel, bequeathed "to the French Refugee Pierre de Villiers, living with wife and children at the foot of the Paarl Mountain at Drakenstein, my gold ring set with garnets, in acknowledgment of the kindness formerly received from his co-religionists in France." It is probable that Pierre de Villiers had known his wife when her parents and family had left Monneaux in 1688 and gone to live at la Rochelle

Viret, Jean, a bachelor, sailed in the Berg China in 1688, aged 18; died on the voyage.

*Viret, Estienne of Dauphine, born circa 1662-64, arrived in the Zuid Beveland; married Marguerite Roux of Provence, q.v., born 1682. He died 29th October, 1726, and was buried in the churchyard at Cape Town; she died 8th November, 1759. He had five sons, who do not appear to have left descendants in the male line. On 14th September, 1699, a son Estienne was baptised.

Vitout or Vitu, Marie, arrived in 1688 with her husband, Daniel Nourtier, q.v.

Vitout or Vitu, Sara, arrived in 1699 with her husband, Jacques de la Porte, q.v. In the church registers of Guisnes there are a number of entries referring to the Vitu family. There were three brothers, Pierre, Jean and Eustache Vitu. There was a Marie Vitu, wife of Jean Goudalle, relation of the wife of Daniel des Ruelles, q.v. As the Nourtiers came from near Calais, it is possible that the Vitu also originated from there.

*Vivier, Abraham, Jacob and Pierre Three brothers, who received assistance in 1690, farmers at Drakenstein. In 1695 the name of Pierre is found as having come from Normandy. In 1714 there are three separate inventories of the deceased estates of the three brothers, signed by Jacquemina du Pree (des Pres), the widow of Abraham, who was the only one of the three to marry. He left three sons and live daughters. Abraham, the eldest son, died unmarried about 1743; Isaac, the second son, also died without marrying, but Jacob left issue. On the 13th January, 1714. a posthumous daughter of Abraham and Jacquemina du Pree was baptised Anna at Drakenstein.

List of those who came to the Cape before 1688 and after 1700.

*dU Toit, Francois of Ryssel (Lille) arrived in 1686 in the Vryheit; became a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch and Drakenstein, and died in October, 1731. He married Susanne Seugnet of Saintonge, q.v., at Cape Town, on 12th February. 1690, Descendants of this couple living.

*dU Toit, Guillaume of Ryssel, brother of the above. He probably came out at the same time, i.e., in 1686, as we find that on the 3rd December, 1687, he was granted a licence by the Governor to shoot game. His fiance, Sara Couchet, widow of Peter de Clercq, q.v., who came from Oosterhoebrugh, Walcheren Is., was given a passage out to the Cape to join him in 1688. She was then living at Serooskerke, Walcheren Island. They were married on the i6th May. 1688, and she died in 1714. he having predeceased her. Guillaume du Toit was also a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden. The two brothers du Toit took a prominent part in later scenes connected with the van der Stel troubles. This couple left no surviving male issue.

*le Febre, Pierre, came to Cape in 1683 with wife and child, and in 1690 he received assistance for himself, wife and two children. In 1700 he was living in the Cape district with his wife Maria de Graaf (or de Grave) and three daughters.

*le Long, Jean, with his wife and two children, received assistance in 1690, and two years later had only one child. He lived at Drakenstein, and died August, 1721, having married Maria Coche. Jean le Long must have been one of those few Refugees who accepted the first offer of the Company to settle here in terms of their resolution of 1685. In the title deed of his farm Bossendal, Drakenstein, granted in 1713, it is stated that the land had been given to him in 1685 and 1686.

*Margra, Jean of Lausane. On 26th April, 1688, he was allowed by the Cape Government a passage out for his wife Preyntje or Tryntje Dekker, then living at Middelburg. He was a free burgher living at Stellenbosch, and in 1694 received the grant of land of the present Stellenbosch commonage, which he had held since 1687. In 1692 he appears on the burgher list with wife, son and daughter.

Veron, Amand of Malines, or Mechelen, not far from Antwerp, arrived in the Bosweyk in 1687, a soldier in the Dutch East India Company; became a burgher 28th November, 1690. On 1st February, 1699, he was granted the farm St. Omer in Dal Josaphat, Drakenstein, and died on 12th September, 1723. He is stated to have been born at St. Thomas, and at his death in 1723 was 62 years of age; left no wife or child.

Villion (now Viljoen), Francois of Clermont, arrived in 1671, married in 1676 Cornelia Campenaar of Middelburg. In the registers the name is spelt Signon before 1678, afterwards VilUon. He was dead in 1692, as in the list of inhabitants appears "the widow of Francois Villion, with two children." Descendants of this couple. The eldest son, Henning Villion, married a daughter of the Refugee de Savoye, q.v. On 28th June, 1690, the widow, then married to Wemmer Pasman, passed before the Secretary of Stellenbosch an obligation in favour of the Orphan Masters for the inheritance of her six minor children "Filion," by name Pieter, Anna, Henning, Jan, Cornelia and Francina.

Wibeaux, see Huibaux

Names of those who were no doubt of Huguenot origin and arrived after 1700

d'Ailly, David of Amsterdam, arrived at the Cape in 1713, joined the Dutch East India Company in 1717, and became junior Merchant and bookkeeper. Probably the following two were his brothers.

d'Ailly, Jean of Amsterdam, arrived at the Cape in 1708. In 1696 he was living at Haarlem with his wife Johanna de Potter, daughter of David de Potter and Susanna d'Ailly. She joined him later at the Cape, and died about 1718, leaving by him David, born 1705, and Jan Benjamin, born about 1717. The latter joined the Dutch East India Company, and in 1803 his grandson, also Jan Benjamin, asked the Government for a farm, and in his petition referred to his ancestors who had been persecuted in France, the land of their birth, and had fled to Holland where they had found "powerful help, comfort and support" in their oppression and banishment. He speaks of the names of his ancestors who had filled various Government offices at the Cape, and mentions "the distinguished family from which he is descended."

d'Ailly, Johannes Godefridus, arrived at the Cape in 1708, after a voyage of more than eight months. He came out to assume the office of minister to the Cape congregation, and died here in June, 1726. He married Alida de Lange, widow of the Surgeon Francois Guto, but appears to have had no issue by her. She died about 1733.

Blignault (now Blignaut), Jean of Amsterdam, arrived in the Company's service in 1723, son of Pieter Blignault and Elisabeth Desbordes. In 1725 he married Anne Rousseau, widow of the Refugee Daniel Hugo, and by the union became possessed of much landed property. At the baptism of their first child, Jean Blignault's mother, Ehzabeth Desbordes, stood sponsor. He was a Heemraad of Drakenstein. Died about 1752, leaving two sons and three daughters. He was possessed of seven farms, most being in Drakenstein; some of these were Bethel, where he evidently lived, Sion and Vleesbank. It is stated Daniel Hugot sent for Jean Blignault from Europe to come out and teach his children, the two having known each other before coming to the Cape. Descendants.

Brousson, see Rousselet.

Faure, Antoine, born at Orange in 1685, arrived at the Cape in 1714, son of Pierre Faure and Justina Pointy, who fled to Holland on account of religious persecutions. Pierre had been a merchant at Orange, where he returned in 1689, and died there. Antoine Faure arrived in the Company's service, and in 1719 was appointed "voorlezer" and schoolmaster at Stellenbosch. In 1714 he married Rachel de Villiers, daughter of the Refugee Abraham de Villiers, and left male issue. He must have died in 1736, in which year their joint will is filed, as his widow applied in 1750 for a piece of ground at Stellenbosch.

Guilliaumé, Francois, sent out to the Cape in 1726 to superintend the silk culture, which post he held for some years. He came with his wife Claudine Cloy, or Cloi, and family. On the 25th November, 1726, both were inscribed as members of the Dutch Church at Cape Town, upon presentation of their certificate from the French church at Amsterdam. In 1735 he informed the Government that he intended to remain at the Cape as a burgher.

Guilliaumé, Matthieu or Matthys, born at Berlin in 1711, to which place his father François had no doubt fled. He married on ist June, 1738, at Drakenstein, Susanna Radyn, and left male issue. The name Giliomee and Guillome was known in the Cape Colony fifty years ago.

Guilliaumé, Anna, Johanna and Marie, all of Languedoc, no doubt daughters of Francois (Marie, at least, gives her parents' names as Francois Guilliaume and Claudine Cloy). Johanna married (i) Jan Engelbrecht, ancestor of the Cape family, (2) Jacobus Louw, Jacob's son. Marie married, on 18th October, 1739, Louis Jourdan.

Hucebos,Hucibos or Huibaux (Wiebeaux), Andre, Before 1725 his signature is found to several documents. Andries Wiebaux (who, I am of opinion, is one and the same person as Andre Huibaux) came in 1706 in the Blots from Middelburg, became free burgher 1715. and died 31st July, 1727.

Huibaux (Wiebeaux), Maria Catharina, born 1075, married Hercule Verdeau, q.v.

le Sage, Jean of Dieppe, married at Drakenstein on 31st October, 1717, Margaretha de ViUiers. Died about 1720.

Migault, Francois Louis of Embden, arrived at the Cape in 1713; married, 5th March, 1719, Maria Magdalena Niel. He was allowed to open a school for teaching the youth Dutch and French.

Naudé, Jacob, born at Berlin circa 1696, arrived here in 1710; in 1722 married Suzanne Taillefert of Chateau Thierry, daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, q.v., and widow of Pierre Cronier. His parents were Philippe Naude and Anna Isnard, who lived at Berlin. When he joined the Drakenstein church in 1718 he brought a certificate of church membership from Hanover. It would be interesting to know what relation he was of Philippe Naude, the theologian and mathematician, born at Metz 28th December, 1654, and died at Berlin in March, 1729.

Naudé, Philippe Jacob, of Berlin, son of the Revd. Roget David Naude, professor at the French College and minister of the French church at Berlin, and Elizabeth Borrel. He arrived here in 1754 in the Company's service, and in 1766 received his discharge and went to reside at Drakenstein. On 4th August, 1774, he married Johanna Elizabeth du Plessis. In 1772 he passed a power of attorney in favour of David Naudé, astronomer, and Revd. Louis Ancillon, minister of the French Reformed Monastery Church, both of Berlin, to receive from the Burgomasters of that city monies due to him from the estates of his late father and mother.

Pouisseon, Martin, His name appears on the Stellenbosch burgher roll of 1685. In 1692 he is described as with wife and three children, and was buried at Cape Town, January, 1713.

Rousselet, Daniel Rousselet Brousson of Amsterdam, where his father Jan Rousselet was a merchant; he married at the Cape, in 1744, Mariana, daughter of Andries Grove and Anna Niei, or Nel.

St. Jean, Jean, born at Bordeaux, Gascony, a burgher at Stellenbosch in 1687.

de St. Jean, Renault Berthault, born 1692 at Sanoere, province of Berry, was the son of Marie Done, living in 1726 at Sanoere. In 1712 he became a surgeon in the service of the Dutch East India Company, and arrived at the Cape in 1719 in that capacity. His wife Anna Fourdinier and son, who had been left behind in Holland, joined him later on. In 1726 he was chief surgeon of the Company's hospital at Cape Town, where he died on 11th March, 1763. His second wife was Martha, born 1702, only daughter of the Refugee Durand SoUier, q.v.

Serrurier, Johannes Petrus of Hanau, minister of the Dutch church at Cape Town, married 9th November, 1760, Margaretha Elisabeth Timmendorf. He died 3rd February, 1819, aged 84 years and 28 days.

Serrurier, Jan of Hanau, son of Louis Serrurier and Ester de Vis of Hanau; married at the Cape, 5th November, 1747, Catharina Krygsman. He became a Burgher Councillor of Cape Town, and was the owner of Alphen at Wynberg. In 1753 he passed a power of attorney in favour of his brother, Revd. Daniel Serrurier, minister at Leiden, and Hendrik van Alphen.

Dutch East India Company Employees

The following names are a few taken from the roll of men in the service of the Dutch East India Company. Most have a French appearance and it is probable several were refugees who had fled to Holland for safety.

de Chavonnes, Dominiques, Captain and Head of the Cape Garrison 1687-1689; he left for the East Indies. He married Maria Lamy.

de Chavonnes, Maurits Pasques of the Hague; Lt.-Colonel and Governor of the Cape, 1714-1724.

de Chavonnes, Pieter Rocques, member of the Orphan Chamber 1717; Dispenser in 1720.

Ferne, Pieter of Berne, a soldier in 1697.

Ferrier, Boniface, a soldier in 1694.

de la Fontaine, Jan of Leiden, a soldier in 1692.

Levett, Jacques of Geneva, a soldier in 1693.

de Lormel, Pierre of Dieppe, a soldier in 1693.

Morel, Pierre, a soldier in 1693.

Olivier, Pieter of Montcallier, a soldier in 1696.

Orle, Jan of Lausaune, a soldier in 1693.

Orle, Jean of Beme, a soldier in 1695.

Poigner, Jean Baptist, ex corporal, 1705.

Souter, Willem of Berne, a soldier in 1698.

Troullat, Jean of Valenciennes, a soldier, 1694-1696.

The French Refugees at the Cape by Colin Graham Botha. Published 1921

Note: The text appears exactly as in the book the "I" references in the text above therefore refer to Colin Botha's thoughts and findings